John Holloway
Born 1737? Caroline Co. VA
Killed Oct 1781 by Indians, Natchez District

Go to:
Elizabeth White

m. 1764?
b. Mar 1, 1738?
Orange Co. VA
d. Aug 31, 1817
Baton Rouge LA

b. 1765?
d. by 1830?
?Natchez MS

b. Dec 27, 1766
Lynches Creek, SC
d. Dec 8, 1851
Little Mulberry, Burke Co NC

b. 1767?
d. after 1810
?Baldwin Co. AL

b. 1769
Craven? Co. SC
d. 1844?
Rapides? Parish LA

b. Jan 17, 1774
Craven Co. SC
d. by 1833?
Franklin Co. MS

b. 1777
?Burke Co. NC
d. by 1820
?Feliciana Parish LA

b. by Nov 1779
Burke Co. NC
d. 1827?
?Rapides Parish LA
Unborn child

due Dec 1781.
Natchez District
In Nov 1760, a Rachell gives to John his share of her husand's estate. It amounts to a little over eight pounds, according to Culpeper County will book records. Soon after this, and before marrying his wife about 1765, John moved to the Pee Dee River region of South Carolina. By Oct 25, 1760, his future wife Elizabeth White is listed as "gone" in the records of the Cashaway Baptist Church where other White family members still belonged.
Caroline County Virginia was formed in 1728 (see present day map for location). Culpeper County Virginia was formed in 1748 (see present day map for location), and was bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the west, and the Rappahannock River forms one of its eastern boundaries.
A "John Halloway", aged 22, is listed as a draftee in the 7th Company of the VA Regiment under Capt. Joshua Lewis. His trade is recorded as planter, his height 5 feet 7, his "Country" Virginia and "Where Entertained" York Co. These soldiers were drafted about 1757, presumably to fight in the French and Indian Wars that lasted until 1763.
A "John Holloway", is listed as a private in the roll of Capt. Samuel Butler's Company under Col. George Gabriel Powell during Gov. Lyttleton's Campaign against the Cherokees. The muster roll is of troops who served from Oct 11, 1759 to Jan 15, 1760, lasting a total of ninty-seven days.
Those who served in the Cherokee War under Col. George Gabriel Powell were mainly from Cheraw and Georgetown Districts of old Craven County (as opposed to the Camden District and western counties). Listed among those who served under Col Powell, "John Holoway", John White and a clerk William White [possibly brothers John and William], and several "Duett" or "Dueiett", namely Ens. Charles [possibly a son of Charles Dewitt], Joseph who left or deserted, and Benjamin "Due" who died [Andrea, SC Colonial Soldiers...].
About 1756, a John Holloway secured land in Welch Neck, Cheraws District (now Marlboro County), in northeast South Carolina, and remained there for several decades. He may be John Holloway born in 1719, son of Charles Holloway, brother of this John's father. About 10 miles south is Marr's Bluff SC.
According to the minutes of the Welch Neck Baptist Church, "In 1737 a party of immigrants from the Welch Tract in the State of Delaware removed to the Pee Dee River in So. Carolina which place they designated the Welch Neck, in remembrance of their former residence...".
Welch Neck was an area of the old Cheraws District that is part of present day Marlboro Co. SC. The Welsh were later joined by English and Scotch-Irish settlers. Map of the Cheraws District between 1785 and 1790.
John and his family, along with father-in-law James Taylor White and his sons William and Reuben White, and William Loving were all members of a SC militia defeated at Marr's Bluff SC, at the hands of Regulators, on July 25, 1768.
Excerpt from the book The South Carolina Regulators by Richard Maxwell Brown gives a background and summary of the incident.
In "Charles-Town", the incident at Marr's Bluff prompted the legislature to "lay before the public" information about these Regulators specifically, those headed by Gideon Gibson were "rogue" bandits, not to be confused with the "honest" Regulators. The following was recorded there later in the year 1768:
"If we are to credit the despositions? of George Thomson, William Loving, James White, Stephen Sebastian, Godfrey Kersay, John Holloway, Reuben White and William White produced to us by Robert Weaver, Esq. of Marr's Bluff, the conduct of Gideon Gibson was not misrepresented in this paper of the 16th of August last, unless by the omission of sone aggravating circumstances" [Warren, p. 372].
On Oct 10, 1772 John was on record as having land adjacent to James White in Polk Swamp, Craven Co. SC. Living nearby was James Taylor White, near the fork of the Pee Dee River and Jefferies Creek in St. David's Parish, Craven Co., SC.
John moved with the Whites to Burke County NC, being among the first settlers of the Lower Creek area in the 1770's. Thomas White had previously purchased land and moved there from Virginia. See History of Chesterfield. John appears in court with James Taylor White and William White in Oct 1778.
A John Holladay signed the first page of signatures of a 1777 petition of men living on the north Holston River complaining about the division of Fincastle Co. VA. They felt the county line was not equitable and the court house was too far away. Also signing were members of the Renfroe, Bledsoe, Mansker, Drake, Terrell and Robertson families, as well as a Solomon White on page 7 and a John White on page 3. Allowing for spelling error, these names all match those that eventually moved to the Cumberland settlement in 1780, where the families of this John Holloway and John White lived for almost 2 years.
On Feb 2, 1779 a "John Holoway" and a "James Sott" applied for a grant (#1476) of 640 acres upon "Long Glady Creek, including improvements". Also, "John Smith lives on for complement" but the grant was tagged "discontinued" [NC Land Grants, v.2, p. 6]. 640 acres was the amount allotted in Washington County in Western NC for soldiers of higher rank in the Continental Line. A James Scott did serve 3 years from 1776 to 1779, was mustered but then returned to the line in 1780. Later, a James Scott and a John Smith each received one of the Cumberland Settlement's 1,410 Pioneer Land Grants. This part of NC that was Washington Co. is now Middle Tennessee.
John Holloway and William Miller were chain carriers for a survey of 1,000 acres bordering the Catawba River at Quaker Meadows for Col. Charles McDowell (1743-1815), dated Aug 29, 1779 (Photocopy of the survey record). Charles was the older brother of Col. Joseph McDowell, Jr. (1756-1801) who led Burke Co. troops at King's Mountain on Oct 7, 1780. The Quaker Meadows estate had been inherited by Charles in 1775 after the death of his father, Joseph Sr.
Quaker Meadows, home of Charles and Joseph McDowell, was just two miles west of Morganton NC. Photo of Historical Marker.
Map of Western Carolinas during the Revolution shows location where Reuben died at the head of the Catawba River (Old Fort), home of Col. Charles McDowell (Quaker Meadows), the Burke Co. Courthouse not built until 1785, and the John's Creek (River) all along the Catawba River [Map from Draper, Lyman C., King's Mountain and its Heroes, 1881].
John likely marched over land with his family and 3 female slaves as part of the Amos Eaton party that left the NC mountains in Dec 1779 for the Cumberland Settlement, and arrived the beginning of 1780, just a week after the leading James Robertson party of men, horses and dogs.
By May 1780, John Holloway was with his family in the new Cumberland Settlement in Washington Co. in western NC territory (now TN). John, along with about 250 others, signed the Cumberland Compact created May 1, 1780. It was finalized on May 13 and established a provisional government for the isolated area; provided for the election of twelve representatives from the eight stations or forts; provided for a Sheriff, a Clerk, a Militia that required service by all men over age 16, and for the adjudication of causes, the administration of estates, and the awarding of executions. Image of page 2 of the original Compact. The signature of "John Holloday" is ninth down from the top, just above that of Frederick Stump, his son Jacob Stump, and William Hood. Hood was killed by Indians in 1780 or 1781, and by winter 1781, Jacob Stump was killed out with his father near their home.
Washington Co., previously Washington District, was formed by North Carolina in 1777 and extended west to the Mississippi River, mostly containing land inhabited by five different tribes of Native Americans, but mostly Cherokee. In 1779, the Cumberland Settlement was created by the granting of land by the NC government. In 1783 this settlement was mostly contained in the newly formed Davidson Co. and surrounded by Indian Lands, and Virginia and Kentucky to the North. Map of the Cumberland Settlements showing Forts or Stations placed in present counties.
Col. Frederick Stump (born about 1723) was in his fifties when he came to the Cumberland Settlement in Washington Co. NC. He was thought to have famously killed 10 Indians in his native Pennsylvania in Jan 1768, and had been jailed for killing British soldiers in Georgia. After he escaped, he joined the Amos Eaton expedition to Cumberland and claimed land on Whites Creek and helped build Eaton's fort (or Heaton's Station). He later started a distillery and an inn and tavern, helped improve local roads, and purchased more land in the Whites Creek area. (Map).
William White, eldest son of John White, received an original land claim in the Cumberland Settlement in Washington Co. but never actually settled on the land. This may be why John was there in 1780. The claim he attempted with a James Scott the year before on Long "Glady" Creek (shown on Map) appears to be very close to (or the same as) Whites Creek which ran through the lands claimed by Frederick Stump, William White, and Joshua Howard, before reaching the Cumberland River. James Scott did receive a land grant but John never did. Joshua Howard arrived in Cumberland from the Natchez District by the beginning of 1781. He was assigned Captain of the Freeland's Station on Mar 15, 1783 [Clayton, p. 37].
According to his grandson Robert, John moved his family from SC "in order to escape the Revolution". The South Carolina Whites were not sympathetic to the American Revolution and left a trail of litigation in the state. The White family split apart possibly for the same reason. John, his wife Elizabeth White, their six children and others migrated up the Ohio River and down the Mississippi River to Natchez, then something of a Tory refuge from revolutionary hostilities, under British influence with Spanish-French administration.
1777 Map of the Colonies, by J. Leopold Imbert showing the Carolinas and neighboring territory of "Louisiane" and the rivers and settlements there at the time of the Revolution. Map was reproduced and printed by the Museum of the American Revolution from a map image at the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library.
John arrived with his family on two pirogues in the Grand Gulf area of the Natchez District by Jan 21, 1781. He left them in the care of Eleanor "Nelly" Price who owned a Mississippi River dock in that area. The town of Grand Gulf no longer exists but was not far from the towns of Port Gibson and Natchez. After being sued on Sep 8, 1781, John countersued a John Townshend over the loss of the two pirogues [McBee, Natchez Court Reccords, p. 8].
Pirogues were flat bottomed boats, that could be propelled by either a paddle like a canoe or a pole in marshes and swamps. Photo of a pirogue circa 1885 (lower boat) displayed at the Grand Gulf Military Park. The pirogue was used on the Mississippi River according to the Background plaque.
Receipt dated Feb 28, 1781 from "John Townshend" to "John Holoway" submitted with the lawsuit to the Natchez District Court [MDAH, microfilm roll no. 5326, p. 107]. The receipt shows initial charges dated Jan 21, 1781.
John was shot and scalped by Indians five leagues (about 17 miles) from the Fort of Natchez between Sep 8 and Oct 24, 1781. At the time, he was apparently working as "an overseer", and/or living, at the plantation of a Joshua Howard who was "absent from this district". Son George and a slave were tied with a rope to a workbench, but George cut the rope and escaped during the night. Son George later described the attack, saying his father was "soon [after they arrived] cruelly murdered by Indians at Natchez".
The Commandant of the Natchez District received notice of the death on Oct 24, 1781. On that date a Conveyence was issued to appoint the guardian of the surviving children, and an Estate Inventory was performed.
A Joshua Howard owned 200 acres on Second Creek in the Natchez District. His petition to the British West Florida Government for the land was dated Nov 6, 1776. The receipt for surveying fees was dated Jan 22, 1777. After the Spaniards took possession of the territory, Howard left the Natchez District for the Cumberland Settlement in an area of far western North Carolina that later became Nashville TN. He returned to Natchez at the end of 1788.
On Dec 31, 1788, "Joucha Hayward" arrived in Natchez from "Cumberland/Tennessee", not listed among the flatboats and without family. In a letter dated Mar 2, 1790, from Carlos de Grand Pre, Natchez, Mar 2, 1790 to Governor Don Estavan Miro, the amount of tobacco was reported by growers of Natchez. A "Joshua Houvard" reported producing 5000 pounds of tobacco [MS Dept of Archives & History, website].
According to the 1792 Spanish Census for Natchez District, a Joshua Howard was a head of household in the District of Second & Sandy Creek, as was "Juan Holladay" [John's son], both single white males without blacks or slaves. A different translation has a Tonio Howard with 6 whites and 5 blacks on 400 arpents (336 acres) of land in the same area, which was east and south of Natchez. A Joshua Howard (1745-1813) was a slave owner in Wilkes Co. NC. [Note: in 1792, the cotton gin had not yet been invented, nor were there steamboats on the Mississippi River].
1895 Map of Natchez from the Ancestral Trackers website, shows the likely routes of the Second and Sandy Creeks in 1792.
Map showing Land Holdings in the Second Creek area in 1810 is an enlargement of part of the Adams Co. 1810 Land Holdings Map found on the website of the MS Achives and History. In the center of this map can be seen the land owned by Joshua Howard and other members of the Howard family. Brother John Howard (Jr.) tried to claim 165 acres next to D. Ferguson and R. Sessions on May 29, 1804, the same day that Joshua Howard tried to claim the 200 acres of land had been surveyed for him in 1777. The latter tract would be the land that John Holloway was "improving" and where he was killed.
Unrecorded Land Claims dated Mar 29, 1804 by Joshua and John Howard, indicating the approximate location of their lands on Second Creek, and where John Holloway was killed in 1781 while working there [McBee, Unrecorded Land Claims nos. 1470-1, p. 555].
After his death, John's wife, who was seven months pregnant, was appointed guardian of the six minor children. His estate was conveyed to his widow in the same court proceeding on Oct 24, 1781. Inventory included carpenter and plantation tools, and a gun. Also, animals, and livestock belonging to daughter Elizabeth and son George. There were four slaves: one man "Samuel", 50 years old, and three females, (Sarah, native of Barbados and aged about 30, and daughters Bella, 10, and Dorinda, 8, both born in SC). In Dec 1797, Bella, aged about 26, and her 2 year old child Rose were sold for $600.
After his mother remarried, George, still a teenager, was sent to live with his uncle, William White, and his grandfather, James Taylor White, in NC, where part of the White family had settled and had become patriots in a part of the country that was being "pacified", that is, freed from Indian threats.
By 1790, son George has married his first cousin Mary Loving and started a family. In the 1790 Burke Co. NC Census for 5th Company, George is listed as a head of household of 4 members:
1 male aged 16 and up (George),
1 male under age 16 (son John),
2 females (wife Mary, daughter Elizabeth).
And "Wm White Senr" is listed as a head of household of 9 family members:
5 males aged 16 and up (William, Anthony, Thomas, Reuben,and ?),
2 males under age 16 (Taylor,?William Jr.),
2 females (wife Sophia, Ann?),
and 12 slaves.
Also, by 1790, a John Townsend is listed as a household in another company (precinct) of the 1790 Burke Co. NC Census [Scott, W. W., Annals of Caldwell Co., pp. 64-65]. This may be the same person who was sued by John over the pirogues in 1781.
In the mid-1790's, sons John and James Holloway, along with their uncle James White (1736?-1783?), and his son Reuben White (1765?-1835), and Reuben's family, moved into northeastern Rapides Parish LA, which became known as Holloway Prairie, where they obtained Spanish land grants and engaged in the cattle business. Many of the Anglo families of the Deville area came there from the Natchez Territory. The names John and James Holloway appear on several 1790's Spanish Colonial documents and militia lists. Mississippi was not admitted to the Union of States until 1817.
Daughter Elizabeth married Cader Raby (1761-1825) by Oct 1781. They both moved to Natchez District, where they died. They may have had 5 children. Elizabeth Raby may have died by 1830. On Jan 31, 1795, "Cader Rabey" petitions the Natchez court to ask for the vacant 400 acres on Sandy Creek so that his family of "7 grown persons" may live without renting [Land Claims Book F, p. 21]. The land was sold by Rabey in Dec 1800.
Son William Holloway is listed in the 1810 Census for Baldwin Co. in the Mississippi Territory, as head of a household with two adults and two sons under age 21. He is listed next to a Reuben Thompson and a Thomas White. Founded in Dec 1809, Baldwin Co. is now a county in Alabama and includes the Tombigbee River near Mobile where Elizabeth White and John Stilley had once lived.
One of William's sons may be the George Holloway, aged 26-45, on Page 365 line 13 of the 1820 Wilkinson Co. Census. Wilkinson Co. MS was formed in 1809 and was previously the southern part of the Natchez District.
Daughter Mary married Alexander Freeland by the middle of 1796, when Elizabeth calls him her son-in-law on Oct 24, 1798 in her deposition regarding lending him a slave named Peg to him in mid 1796.
By 1810, an Alexander Freeland is counted in Feliciana Parish LA.
In 1820 he is the head of a household of himself (aged 45+),
1 male under age 10,
2 other males younger than 26,
and a female aged 16-26 [possibly Mary Freeland who married Picket Luck in 1826],
and no older females so Mary the wife may have died between 1810 and 1820. Also, another daughter may be the Elizabeth Freeland who married Peter McQueen in 1820. Both Mary and Elizabeth married in West Feliciana Parish.
Feliciana Parish LA was founded in 1810 (see present day map for location), and borders Mississippi south of Natchez.
Andrea, Leonardo, South Carolina Colonial Soldiers and Patriots, publ. 1952, transcribed by Sara Augerson in website.
Baldwin Co. AL, "1810 Citizens of Baldwin County, Mississippi Territory", website.
Cashaway Baptist Church Record Book, 1756-1778, Cashaway Neck, formerly Craven Co. SC.
Christenson, Elroy, website, John Hollaway Family.
Cumberland Compact, original document signed May 13, 1780, Washington County NC, website.
Clayton, Prof. W.W., History of Davidson County Tennessee, reprod. 1971 by Charles Elder, Nashville TN.
Dorman, John F., Culpeper County Va., Will Book A, 1749-1770, VA State Archives, p.237; entry re: Rachell's distribution to John Nov 20, 1760 of his father's estate would indicate that John's parents were John and Rachell of Carolina Co. VA.
Drake, Doug, Jack Masters and Bill Puryear, Founding of the Cumberland Settlements, The First Atlas, 1779-1804, Warioto Press, 2009, pp. 23, map E7.
Alexander Gregg, History of the Old Cheraws, repr. of 1925 ed., Balto. Geneal. Publ., 1967, p.90.
Imbert, J. Leopold, map maker, Carte des Possessions Angloises... 1777, reprinted by the Museum of the American Revolution from map image at the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center, Boston Public Library.
"Inventories Conveyance... re: death of John Holloway" and "Court proceedings and inventory of estate of John Holloway", Oct 24, 1781, in Natchez Court Records Book A, Jul 21, 1781 - Nov 1787, p. 304, photocopy from research of Mary Lois Ragland, Oct 1990.
Lewis, J.D., Georgetown District, South Carolina, "History of the Georgetown District", website.
"John Holloway, 1851", File H-3, on p. 208 of "The MS Cains", website.
McBee, May Wilson, comp., "Land Claims", in Natchez Court Records, 1767-1805, Book F, p.21.
McBee, May Wilson, comp., Natchez Court Records, 1767-1805, Greenwood MS, 1953, v. 2, p. 8.
MS Dept. of Archives & History (MDAH), Jackson MS, rootsweb, Americans Arriving in Spanish-Held Natchez 1780-1790.
MSGenWeb, Natchez District 1792 Census Index, comp. by Ellen Pack, website, transcribed and translated from Spanish.
North Carolina Land Grants, vol. 2, at Morganton NC Library, p. 6, #1476, transcribed by Lisabeth M. Holloway Oct 9, 1987.
Potter, Dorothy Williams, Passports of Southeastern Pioneers 1770-1823, Gateway Press, Baltimore MD, 1982, p. 342.
Scott, W. W., Annals of Caldwell Co., Lenoir NC, 1930, pp. 64-65, 118.
Thomas, Rev. I. W., "A Brief Sketch of the Holloway Family", Transcript of newspaper clipping, Caldwell Co. NC, c. 1918. Author (1848-1922) said article was written from memory. It contains mistakes such as John's name (George).
Tuller, Roberta, "1777 Petition of Holston Men", in An American Family History, website, Amazon Services, 2020.
"Virginia Troops in the French and Indian Wars", Va. Hist. Mag., 1:389, 1894.
Warren, Mary Bondurant, Citizens and Immigrants - South Carolina, 1768, abstracted from contemporary records, Heritage Papers, Danielsville GA, 1980, pp. 353, 372.
Welch Neck Baptist Church, Society Hill SC, 1737-1935, Minutes, at South Caroliniana Library, Univ. of SC, Columbia, SC.
Wells, Carol, Natchez Postscripts 1781-1798, Heritage Books, pp. 101, 144-5, 151,
White, Gifford, James Taylor White of Virginia and some of his descendants into Texas, Austin, TX, 1982.
Veach, Damon, "Louisiana Ancestors", article in Sunday Advocate Magazine, Baton Rouge LA, Feb 21, 1982.